You must have seen that Airtel 4G girl wining a 4G challenge with her monologue “Gadbad nahi, 4G hai”. You might be satisfied with your 4G download speed, but sometimes do you feel that you need to find some better network where you can stream your 4k Video, do online VR streaming or avoid lagging in online gaming?
5G technology is the solution to this.
Basically, we see a new generation in every decade. 1G came in 1980 which brought us the very first cell phone, 2G came in 1991 with text facility. 3G brought us online (1998), 4G delivered the speed (2008) that we are enjoying today and finally very soon 5G will take place nearly in 2020.
The fifth generation(5G) means high speed, reliable connection and network for IOT devices. It’s a software-defined network which uses the existing infrastructure that is already established i.e same optical fibre, same sim cards but modifications will be in towers or network.
Speed in 5G network:
If we talk about speed, 5G is 100 times faster than 4G. Theoretically, its average speed is 10 GB/S but It can reach up to 800 GB/S. You can imagine by this example that HD movie will take only 3.6 seconds in 5G to be download compared to 6 minutes with the 4G speed.
Its response time is 1 millisecond which can make game streaming faster.
Concept behind the 5G technology
In 2G, 3G or 4G, we use almost similar frequency band (1 or 2 GHz) but in 5G we use super high-frequency band(>20 GHz).
There is a concept in physics if frequency increases, wavelength decreases. The waves we use with super high frequency in 5G, are called millimetre waves. We use 10 millimetres to 1-millimetre wavelength for 5G communication.
Currently, we use these frequency band in aerospace and military operations but we didn’t start it for commercial or consumer application.
Technology behind 5G network
There are 5 technology emerging as a foundation of 5G.
1) Millimetre wave:
We use millimetre waves in 5G that fall in between 30 gigahertz to 300 gigahertz spectrum which gave more bandwidth to everyone. This results in more data transfer with more speed. Now you are happy with speed but hello my dear, just hold on. There is a catch.
More frequency means more attenuation. Its range will be less due to low wavelength. The signal can be dropped against solid walls or it will be weaker in rains or storm. It works same as dish Tv in our house which uses 12 GHz frequency band and we see signal loss issue in bad weather. So, What will be the solution?
2) Small cell network:
This technology solves the above problem by making thousands of low power mini base stations. These base station will be much closer to each other formulating a sort of relay team which help in transmit signals around obstacles. This will be helpful in cities when user move behind obstacle, smartfone would automatically switch to new base station in better range and continue with his connection.
3) Massive MIMO:
This stands for multiple input multiple output. Today 4G base station have dozen port of antenna to handle all cellular traffic but Massive mimo can have hundred of ports which will increase capacity of handling more traffic.
This is like a traffc signalling system for cellular signals instead of broadcasting it in every direcion . it would allow a base station to send a focus stream of data to sepecific user. this presicion prevents interference and way more efficient that means station could handle more
incoming and outgoing data streams at once so loss will be overcome.
5) Full Duplex :
In this technology, silicon transitors are used to make switches to avoid interference of two signal on same frequency in opposit direction. This way we will avoid interference and have more efficiency.
We know, Antenna is always 1/4th size of wavelenth. It means We can use multiple antennas in our smartphone in the pair of 2, 3, 4, 8 or 16 to make signal strength high.
Applications of 5G network
Do we know, 5G has no standard compared to LTE for 4G and UMTS for 3G.
It’s applications are endless. We can use 5G in stremaing VR or AR online, 8K video streaming wirelessely, to make voice or video calls in HD quality. Its latency is very less, so it can be used in remore surgery, in selfdriving cars to communicate each other or in smart cities. It is energy efficient so IOT devices can be connected to each other with consuming less power.
5G and the Market
Indian government announced to bring 5G in whole India by 2020. Department of telecom has declared the spectrum bands of 3.5 GHz, 24 GHz and 28GHz for auction in 2019. BSNL, Airtel and Jio are the top competetior. Other side In USA, Sprint, At &T, verizon and T-mobile is already working to build its network and they claimed to bring 5G by mid 2019.
Very soon, You will see 5G smartphones in market. Qualcomm snapdragon 855 is first processor to support 5G. Mediatek is also working on budget chips to support 5G.
Lenovo CEO claims that he is going to launch world’s first 5G smartphone. There are other smartphone like One plus 7 and Samsung galaxy S10 are also bringing 5G support.